The shoulders form the connection between the upper arm and trunk. They include the shoulder joint, consisting of the head of the humerus and the shoulder blade with surrounding muscles, tendons and ligaments, as well as the shoulder girdle as well as the clavicle and raven bone in addition to the shoulder blade. The special nature of the shoulder joint enables extreme mobility, but also makes the shoulder susceptible to injuries. The rear section of the shoulder area is part of the back, the front area forms part of the chest. The armpit is on the inside of the shoulder.
The stability and movement of the shoulder joint is essentially secured by the so-called rotator cuff, which surround the shoulder joint as a muscle group and connect the shoulder blade to the humerus. The muscles cannot always withstand the forces that occur. For example, in the event of falls and accidents, shoulder dislocations (shoulder dislocation) are by no means uncommon. Here, the joint head slips out of the socket, which is associated with considerable pain and restricted movement. Even if a so-called closed reduction (displacement of the dislocation by targeted external force) is often possible, those affected after a shoulder dislocation often remain susceptible to this type of injury. Repeated bulging of the shoulder is quite common here. If nerves and vessels are also pinched by the displaced joint head, this can sometimes lead to complications that are associated with permanent damage to the shoulder area.
Other symptoms that appear more frequently in the shoulder area include arthrosis, impingement syndrome (bottleneck syndrome) or a so-called calcareous shoulder. Typical symptoms are an unpleasant shoulder stabbing, shoulder blade pain, swelling, restricted movement and possibly reddening of the shoulder. A crack in the shoulder and anatomical misalignments such as a drooping shoulder can also be observed increasingly. Physiotherapy, massages and, if necessary, anti-inflammatory medication can often be used to successfully combat the symptoms in the shoulder area, but permanent damage to the joint, such as for example from osteoarthritis or a calcareous shoulder, can often only be remedied by surgery. (fp)